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Muscular-anal 18 months to 3 years Autonomy versus shame/doubt The child learns what he or she can and cannot control and develops a sense of free will. Locomotor 3 to 6 years Initiative versus guilt The child learns to become independent by exploring, manipulating, and taking action. Latency 6 to 12 years Industry versus inferiority The child learns to do things well or correctly according to standards set by others, particularly in school. Adolescence 12 to 18 years Identity versus role confusion The adolescent develops a well-defined and positive sense of self in relationship to others. Young adulthood 19 to 40 years Intimacy versus isolation The person develops the ability to give and receive love and to make long-term commitments.

Habituationrefers to the decreased responsiveness toward a stimulus after it has been presented numerous times in succession. Organisms, including infants, tend to be more interested in things the first few times they experience them and become less interested in them with more frequent exposure. Developmental psychologists have used this general principle to help them understand what babies remember and understand. Amphetamines may produce a very high level of tolerance, leading users to increase their intake, often in “jolts” taken every half hour or so.

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Self-help groups have been used to help individuals cope with many types of addictive behaviours. Three of the best-known self-help groups are Alcoholics Anonymous, Gamblers Anonymous, and Overeaters Anonymous. Unlike some medical therapies that can be targeted toward specific symptoms, current psychological drug therapies are not so specific; they don’t change particular behaviours or thought processes, and they don’t really solve psychological disorders. However, although they cannot “cure” disorders, drug therapies are nevertheless useful therapeutic approaches, particularly when combined with psychological therapy, in treating a variety of psychological disorders. The best drug combination for the individual patient is usually found through trial and error (Biedermann & Fleischhacker, 2009). Beck’s cognitive therapy was based on his observation that people who were depressed generally had a large number of highly accessible negative thoughts that influenced their thinking (Beck, 1995; Beck, Freeman, & Davis, 2004). His goal was to develop a short-term therapy for depression that would modify these unproductive thoughts. Beck’s approach challenges the client to test his or her beliefs against concrete evidence. If a client claims that “everybody at work is out to get me,” the therapist might ask the client to provide instances to corroborate the claim. At the same time the therapist might point out contrary evidence, such as the fact that a certain coworker is actually a loyal friend or that the patient’s boss had recently praised him or her.

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Girls who are very slim, who engage in strenuous athletic activities, or who are malnourished may begin to menstruate later. Even after menstruation begins, girls whose level of body fat drops below the critical level may stop having their periods. The sequence of events for puberty is more predictable than the age at which they occur. Some girls may begin to grow pubic hair at age 10 but not attain menarche until age 15.

Chapter 15 Psychology in Our Social Lives

Rather than studying hundreds of traits, researchers can focus on only five underlying dimensions. The Big Five may also capture other dimensions that have been of interest to psychologists. For instance, the trait dimension of need for achievement relates to the Big Five variable of conscientiousness, and self-esteem relates to low neuroticism. On the other hand, the Big Five factors do not seem to capture all the important dimensions of personality. For instance, the Big Five do not capture moral behaviour, although this variable is important in many theories of personality. And there is evidence that the Big Five factors are not exactly the same across all cultures (Cheung & Leung, 1998). In this chapter we will consider the wide variety of personality traits found in human beings. We’ll consider how and when personality influences our behaviour, and how well we perceive the personalities of others.

  • Making predictions is difficult, in part because people vary and respond differently in different situations.
  • And the positive emotions that we experience as a result of our group memberships— known as social identity— can be an important and positive part of our everyday experiences .
  • A paradigm equips scientists and practitioners with a set of assumptions about what is to be studied as well as a set of research methods for how those phenomena should be examined.
  • The cochlea relays information about the specific area, or place, in the cochlea that is most activated by the incoming sound.

Personality disorders are categorized into three clusters, characterized by odd or eccentric behaviour, dramatic or erratic behaviour, and anxious or inhibited behaviour. Nicolson, S. E., Mayberg, H. S., Pennell, P. B., & Nemeroff, C. B. Persistent auditory hallucinations that are unresponsive to antipsychotic drugs.The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1153–1159. Cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are typically difficult for outsiders to recognize but make it extremely difficult for the sufferer to lead a normal life. These symptoms include difficulty comprehending information and using it to make decisions , difficulty maintaining focus and attention, and problems with working memory . Identify the biological and social factors that increase the likelihood that a person will develop schizophrenia. A neurotrophic model for stress-related mood disorders.Biological Psychiatry, 59, 1116–1127. Eventually Juliana returned home to ask for money, but when her parents found out about her recent behaviour and confronted her, she acted aggressively and abusively to them, so they referred her to a social worker. Juliana was hospitalized, where she was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Summarize and differentiate the various forms of mood disorders, in particular dysthymia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder.